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  #1  
Old 2004-02-08, 00:47
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powersofterror powersofterror is offline
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Fundamental Theory, Lesson 2 (Intervals)

Now that you can sing let’s learn some intervals!

First of all, an interval is the distance from one note to another. Assuming you have a guitar in your hands, your open “A” is a 4th above your “E” string- 5 half steps, or 5 frets. The “D” string is a 4th above the “A” string; the “G” string is a 4th above the “D” string, and the high “E” string is a 4th above the “B” string. The “B” string is a Major 3rd above the “G” string. In the scale of C Major, there are 5 whole steps and 2 half steps. As a matter of fact, EVERY major mode has 5 whole steps and 2 half steps!

C Major: W-W-H-W-W-W-H
…with the half steps between E & F, and B & C

And of those half and whole steps, lies an interval. A whole step is a Major 2nd, and a half step is a minor 2nd. Take notice how I write those. Minor is always found with a lowercase “m,” and Major always has an uppercase “M.” So from now on, I will be using M2 and m2. Some intervals are perfect, which have a “P” in front. Those are P5, P4, P8 (octave), P1 (unison)

Here is a list of intervals in order:

Unison-m2-M2-m3-M3-p4-A4-p5-m6-M6-m7-M7-octave

If you don’t know, unison is like playing two “C”s together (the same note), and an octave is like playing two “C”s together, yet 8 notes apart-or 12 half steps. The high “E” string is 3 octaves above the low “E” string. Also, we now come across the terms diminished and Augmented. To make an interval diminished, lower the top note a half step, or raise the lower note a half step.

Ex.
The interval from C to G is a P5

The interval from C to Gb is a d5
The interval from C# to G is a d5

And to get an Augmented interval, raise the top note a half step, or lower the bottom note a half step.

Ex.
The interval from C to G# is an A5
The interval from Cb to G is an A5


These are the intervals of notes in the key of C:

C-D is a M2; 2 half steps
C-E is a M3; 4 half steps
C-F is a P4; 5 half steps
C-G is a P5; 7 half steps
C-A is a M6; 9 half steps
C-B is a M7; 11 half steps
C-C is a P8; 12 half steps

so no matter what scale you're in,...
a M2 is ALWAYS 2 half steps
a M3 is ALWAYS 4 half steps
a P4 is ALWAYS 5 half steps
a P5 is ALWAYS 7 half steps
a M6 is ALWAYS 9 half steps
a M7 is ALWAYS 11 half steps
a P8(octave) is ALWAYS 12 half steps

About how you guys thought of the 1st lesson as dealing with getting a perfect pitch; well, now, try playing a C on your guitar, and singing a P4 above it. That’s F if you’ve forgot. And hey, instead of singing “ahhhh,” or “laaaa,” or “duuuu,” or whatever, you can now sing it as “fa.”
A good way to help with singing intervals, is to remember a cool song you like and try to remember that interval. Well, for ex., in that marriage song, "Here comes the bride!," you can remember that the first interval of that is....A P4!! So when you need to sing a P4, remember that song, and try to recreate it out of your head, and through your mouth. Happy Birthday, I know everyone knows THAT song! the first two notes are in unison, and the very next note is a M2..."do do re do fa mi!"
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Last edited by powersofterror : 2004-02-08 at 00:55.
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  #2  
Old 2004-02-10, 19:11
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johnmansley johnmansley is offline
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Once again, I find that this is a very useful lesson. Now I know what all that minor 3rds shit is all about!

I've got a question though. When you want to add a harmony line to a melody, can you harmonise in any of these intervals or can you only use a specific set of intervals?

For example, I think I've heard that most harmonies are a Major 3rd ahead of the original melody (ha ha, I know what this means now!). But if I wanted, could I harmonise using ANY of the intervals you outlined above, eg, a minor 7th?
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Old 2004-02-10, 19:37
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powersofterror powersofterror is offline
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That all depends on what you're writing to. A lot of BM uses Major and minor for the sinister/lovely contrast. It would be really wicked if you played a solo with two guitars, a half step off from each other. Not much of that is used, hehe. P4 's are dissonant, and so are 2nds and 7ths. P5, and P8 are consonant, so it would sortof get boring after a while, if an entire harmonization was just an ovtave apart. Differentiate between the imperfect and perfect consonances, use the leading tones of a dissonant chord to add character. Just fuck around until you think that is the way it should be...
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Man, I get real sweaty after I wack my dong. Yeah, cause I headbang while I do, and I can't really "Jump" (haha ) like VanHalen in a dorm room, so I just walk back and forth....haha a couple days ago I was jumping up and down on my bed, with my pants down and my roommate came in when I wasn't looking, hahaha.


This is my band's page
http://www.myspace.com/ferocitydentontx
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  #4  
Old 2004-02-10, 19:50
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johnmansley johnmansley is offline
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Ah! Cheers for the tips!
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  #5  
Old 2004-02-11, 10:02
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Quote:
Originally Posted by powersofterror
Minor is always found with a lowercase ?m,?

The high ?E? string is 3 octaves above the low ?E? string.


Lovely little lowercase M there, sir!

3 octaves? Typo or just weeeiird counting? 1 octave up to the 12th fret on the low E string, 1 more octave up to the 24th fret, and tadaa, you've got your hihg E string note. 1+1=2. Thus, I find your statement quite odd.
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  #6  
Old 2004-02-11, 14:10
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powersofterror powersofterror is offline
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My bad. I was just thinking two different things. High E being the third E...yadda yadda yadda, it's the second octave. Thanks for catching that. And hey, it's the start of a sentence, so bug off.
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Man, I get real sweaty after I wack my dong. Yeah, cause I headbang while I do, and I can't really "Jump" (haha ) like VanHalen in a dorm room, so I just walk back and forth....haha a couple days ago I was jumping up and down on my bed, with my pants down and my roommate came in when I wasn't looking, hahaha.


This is my band's page
http://www.myspace.com/ferocitydentontx
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Old 2004-02-11, 15:57
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The monkey song from the Wizard of Oz is a P5.
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  #8  
Old 2004-08-23, 16:10
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powersofterror powersofterror is offline
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And the first 2 notes of Tales From The Crypt is a m3.
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Man, I get real sweaty after I wack my dong. Yeah, cause I headbang while I do, and I can't really "Jump" (haha ) like VanHalen in a dorm room, so I just walk back and forth....haha a couple days ago I was jumping up and down on my bed, with my pants down and my roommate came in when I wasn't looking, hahaha.


This is my band's page
http://www.myspace.com/ferocitydentontx
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